Overthrown, The Death of America Book Seven

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On January 7, , the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, formally charged with lying under oath and obstructing justice, begins in the Senate.


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As instructed in Article 1 of the U. The two men nearly crashed into the Channel along the way, however, as their balloon was weighed Voters cast ballots to choose state electors; only white men who owned property were allowed to vote. As expected, George Washington won the election and was sworn into office on April 30, As it did in Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. On January 7, , the Harlem Globetrotters basketball team travels 48 miles west from Chicago to play their first game in Hinckley, Illinois. The Globetrotters were the creation of Abe Saperstein of Chicago, who took over coaching duties for a team of African-American players The confessed Colorado cannibal Alferd Packer is released from prison on parole after serving 18 years.

Although at the time of her death in , Hurston had published more books than any other black woman in America, she was unable to capture a mainstream audience in her lifetime, and A massive mine explosion leaves nearly dead in Krebs, Oklahoma, on this day in Southeastern Oklahoma was a prime location for mining at Sentenced to death, she was hanged, becoming the first woman executed by the United States federal government.

George Azterodt — German-born Azterodt was a carriage painter and boatman who had secretly ferried Confederate spies across Southern Maryland waterways during the war. Recruited by Booth into the conspiracy, he was assigned to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson, but lost his nerve and stayed in a hotel bar, drinking, instead.


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Adjusting the ropes for hanging the conspirators. White cloth was used to bind their arms to their sides, and their ankles and thighs together. Close-up: A white bag was placed over the head of each prisoner after the noose was put in place. Shortly after the afternoon of July 7, , the four condemned conspirators were forced to climb the hastily built gallows that they had heard being tested the night before from their prison cells. More than 1, people—including government officials, members of the U.

Chris Hedges, "America: The Farewell Tour"

In fact, many in attendance thought that Surratt would be saved from the gallows at the last-minute. It was not to be. The conspirators stood on the drop for about 10 seconds, and then Captain Rath clapped his hands.

Four soldiers knocked out the supports holding the drops in place, and the condemned fell. Close-up: The bodies continued to hang and swing for another 25 minutes before they were cut down. After last rites and shortly after PM, the trap door was opened and all four fell. Within minutes, they were all dead. The bodies continued to hang and swing for another 25 minutes before they were cut down. The British intervention in Indonesia, alongside complimentary CIA operations, shows how far the Foreign Office was prepared to go in intervening in other countries' affairs during the Cold War.

Indonesia was important both economically and strategically. In the US noted that if Indonesia fell out of Western influence, neighbours such as Malaya might follow, resulting in the loss of the "principal world source of natural rubber and tin and a producer of petroleum and other strategically important commodities".

The Japanese occupation during the Second World War, which to the Indonesians amounted to another period of colonial rule, had revitalised the nationalist movement which after the war, declared independence and assumed power. Ahmed Sukarno became Indonesia's first president. Western concern regarding Sukarno's regime grew owing to the strength of the Indonesian communist party, the PKI, which at its peak had a membership of over 10 million, the largest communist party in the non-communist world.

Concerns were not allayed by Sukarno's internal and external policies, including nationalising Western assets and a governmental role for the PKI. By the early Sixties Sukarno had become a major thorn in the side of both the British and the Americans. They believed there was a real danger that Indonesia would fall to the communists.

Overthrow the Prince of Facebook - WSJ

To balance the army's growing power, Sukarno aligned himself closer to the PKI. Prime Minister Macmillan and President Kennedy agreed to "liquidate President Sukarno, depending on the situation and available opportunities". Hostility to Sukarno was intensified by Indonesian objections to the Malaysian Federation. Sukarno complained the project was "a neo-colonial plot, pointing out that the Federation was a project for Malayan expansionism and continuing British influence in the region. In his objections crystallised in his policy of Konfrontasi, a breaking off of all relations with Malaysia, soon coupled with low-level military intervention.

A protracted border war began along the mile-long front in Borneo. According to Foreign Office sources the decision to get rid of Sukarno had been taken by Macmillan's Conservative government and carried through during Wilson's Labour government. The Foreign Office had worked in conjunction with their American counterparts on a plan to oust the turbulent Sukarno.

A covert operation and psychological warfare strategy was instigated, based at Phoenix Park, in Singapore, the British headquarters in the region. The M16 team kept close links with key elements in the Indonesian army through the British Embassy. One of these was Ali Murtopo, later General Suharto's intelligence chief, and M16 officers constantly travelled back and forth between Singapore and Jakarta. IRD had been established by the Labour government in to conduct an anti-communist propaganda war against the Soviets, but had swiftly become enlisted in various anti-independence movement operations in the declining British Empire.

By the Sixties, IRD had a staff of around in London and information officers around the world influencing media coverage in areas of British interest.

According to Roland Challis, the BBC correspondent at the time in Singapore, journalists were open to manipulation by IRD, owing, ironically, to Sukarno's own policies: "In a curious way, by keeping correspondents out of the country Sukarno made them the victims of official channels, because almost the only information you could get was from the British ambassador in Jakarta. Who exactly instigated the coup and for what purposes remains a matter of speculation.

However, within days the coup had been crushed and the army was firmly in control. Suharto accused the PKI of being behind the coup, and set about suppressing them. Following the attempted coup Britain set about exploiting the situation.

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Newspaper reports continually emphasised the danger of the PKI. Drawing upon their experience in Malaya in the Fifties, the British emphasised the Chinese nature of the communist threat. Roland Challis said: "One of the more successful things which the West wished on to the non-communist politicians in Indonesia was to transfer the whole idea of communism onto the Chinese minority in Indonesia.

Playing Both Sides

It turned it into an ethnic thing. It is a terrible thing to have done to incite the Indonesians to rise and slaughter the Chinese. But it was the involvement of Sukarno with the PKI in the bloody months following the coup that was to be the British trump card. According to Reddaway: "The communist leader, Aidit, went on the run and Sukarno, being a great politician, went to the front of the palace and said that the communist leader Aidit must be hunted down and brought to justice.

From the side door of the palace, he was dealing with him every day by courier. The Indonesians didn't have a clue about radio silence and this double-dealing was picked up by GCHQ; the British had its main eavesdropping base in Hong Kong tuned into events in Indonesia. The discrediting of Sukarno was of fundamental importance. Sukarno remained a respected and popular leader against whom Suharto could not move openly until the conditions were right.

Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom

The constant barrage of bad international coverage and Sukarno's plummeting political position fatally undermined him. On 10 March , Sukarno was forced to sign over his powers to General Suharto. Now perceived as closely associated with the attempted coup and the PKI, Sukarno had been discredited to the point where the army felt able to act. The PKI was eliminated as a significant force and a pro-Western military dictatorship firmly established. It was not long before Suharto quietly ended the inactive policy of Konfrontasi resulting in a swift improvement in Anglo-Indonesian relations, which continue to be close to this day.

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