Dead Evolution: The Second Dark Age
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After a successful war with Byzantium in , Asparuh's khanate conquered initially Scythia Minor and was recognised as an independent state under the subsequent treaty signed with the Byzantine Empire in That year is usually regarded as the year of the establishment of present-day Bulgaria and Asparuh is regarded as the first Bulgarian ruler. Another Bulgar horde, led by Asparuh's brother Kuber , came to settle in Pannonia and later into Macedonia. Several consecutive waves of Slavic migration throughout the 6th and the early 7th centuries led to a dramatic change of the demographics of the region and its almost complete Slavicisation.
After the reign of Asparuh, his son and heir Tervel, becomes ruler. In the beginning of 8th century Byzantine emperor Justinian II asked Khan Tervel for assistance in recovering his throne, for which Tervel received the region Zagore from the Empire and was paid large quantities of gold.
He also received the Byzantine title " Caesar ". Years later, the emperor decided to betray and attack Bulgaria, but his army was crushed in the battle of Anhialo. After the death of Justinian II, the Bulgarians continue their crusades against the empire and in they reach Constantinople.
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The threat of both the Bulgarians and the Arab menace in the east, force the new emperor Theodosius III , to sign a peace treaty with Tervel. The successor, Leo III the Isaurian has to deal with an army of , arabs led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik and a fleet of 2, ships that are laying siege on Constantinople in the year Relying on his treaty with Bulgaria, the emperor asks Khan Tervel to help him deal with the Arab invasion.
Tervel accepts and the arabs are decimated outside the walls of the city. The fleet is heavily damaged with the help of Greek fire. The remaining ships are destroyed by a storm, in an attempt to flee. So the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople ended. After the reign of Tervel, there were frequent changes in the ruling houses, which lead to instability and political crisis. Decades later, in , Khan Telerig of house Dulo, ruled Bulgaria.
His military campaign against Constantine V in the year , proved to be unsuccessful.finvejusicpenn.ml
Medieval and Renaissance Concepts of Evolution and Paleontology
Thrilled with his success against Telerig, the Byzantine Emperor dispatched a fleet 2, ships loaded with horsemen. This expedition proved to be a failure, because of strong northern winds near Mesembria. Telerig was aware of the increased presence of spies in the capital Pliska.
To decrease this Byzantine influence, he sent a letter to the emperor in which he asks for refuge in Constantinople and wants to know which Byzantine spies can help him. Knowing their names, he slaughters every agent in the capital. His rule marked the end of the political crisis.
Under the warrior Khan Krum — Bulgaria expanded northwest and south, occupying the lands between the middle Danube and Moldova rivers, all of present-day Romania , Sofia in and Adrianople in , and threatening Constantinople itself. Krum implemented law reform intending to reduce poverty and strengthen social ties in his vastly enlarged state. During the reign of Khan Omurtag — , the northwestern boundaries with the Frankish Empire were firmly settled along the middle Danube.
A magnificent palace, pagan temples, ruler's residence, fortress, citadel, water mains and baths were built in the Bulgarian capital Pliska , mainly of stone and brick. Omurtag pursued policy of repression against Christians. Missionaries from Constantinople, Cyril and Methodius , devised the Glagolitic alphabet , which was adopted in the Bulgarian Empire around The alphabet and the Old Bulgarian language that evolved from Slavonic  gave rise to a rich literary and cultural activity centered around the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools , established by order of Boris I in In the early 9th century, a new alphabet — Cyrillic — was developed at the Preslav Literary School, adapted from the Glagolitic alphabet invented by Saints Cyril and Methodius.
By the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Bulgaria extended to Epirus and Thessaly in the south, Bosnia in the west and controlled all of present-day Romania and eastern Hungary to the north reuniting with old roots. A Serbian state came into existence as a dependency of the Bulgarian Empire. His aggressive policy was aimed at displacing Byzantium as major partner of the nomadic polities in the area. By subverting the principles of Byzantine diplomacy and political culture, Simeon turned his own kingdom into a society-structuring factor in the nomadic world.
Simeon hoped to take Constantinople and become emperor of both Bulgarians and Greeks, and fought a series of wars with the Byzantines through his long reign — At the end of his rule the front had reached the Peloponnese in the south, making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe.
The capital Preslav was said to rival Constantinople ,   the new independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church became the first new patriarchate besides the Pentarchy and Bulgarian translations of Christian texts spread all over the Slavic world of the time. After Simeon's death, Bulgaria was weakened by external and internal wars with Croatians , Magyars, Pechenegs and Serbs and the spread of the Bogomil heresy.
After a war lasting several decades he inflicted a decisive defeat upon the Bulgarians in and completed the campaign four years later. With the collapse of the state, the Bulgarian church fell under the domination of Byzantine ecclesiastics who took control of the Ohrid Archibishopric.
No evidence remains of major resistance or any uprising of the Bulgarian population or nobility in the first decade after the establishment of Byzantine rule. Given the existence of such irreconcilable opponents to the Byzantines as Krakra , Nikulitsa , Dragash and others, such apparent passivity seems difficult to explain. Some historians  explain this as a consequence of the concessions that Basil II granted the Bulgarian nobility to gain their allegiance.
Basil II guaranteed the indivisibility of Bulgaria in its former geographic borders and did not officially abolish the local rule of the Bulgarian nobility, who became part of Byzantine aristocracy as archons or strategoi. Secondly, special charters royal decrees of Basil II recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid and set up its boundaries, securing the continuation of the dioceses already existing under Samuil, their property and other privileges. After the death of Basil II the empire entered into a period of instability.
In , Peter Delyan organized a large-scale rebellion, but failed to restore the Bulgarian state and was killed. Shortly after, the Komnenos dynasty came into succession and halted the decline of the empire. During this time the Byzantine state experienced a century of stability and progress. In the last of the capable Komnenoi, Manuel I Komnenos , died and was replaced by the relatively incompetent Angeloi dynasty, allowing some Bulgarian nobles to organize an uprising. The following year, the Byzantines were forced to recognize Bulgaria's independence.
Peter styled himself "Tsar of the Bulgars, Greeks and Wallachians ". Resurrected Bulgaria occupied the territory between the Black Sea , the Danube and Stara Planina , including a part of eastern Macedonia , Belgrade and the valley of the Morava. It also exercised control over Wallachia and Moldova. He waged wars on the Byzantine Empire and after on the Knights of the Fourth Crusade , conquering large parts of Thrace , the Rhodopes , Bohemia, and Moldovia as well as the whole of Macedonia.
In the Battle of Adrianople in , Kaloyan defeated the forces of the Latin Empire and thus limited its power from the very first year of its establishment. The power of the Hungarians and to some extent the Serbs prevented significant expansion to the west and northwest.
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In an inscription from Turnovo in he entitled himself "In Christ the Lord faithful Tsar and autocrat of the Bulgarians, son of the old Asen". The Bulgarian Orthodox Patriarchate was restored in with approval of all eastern Patriarchates, thus putting an end to the union with the Papacy. Ivan Asen II had a reputation as a wise and humane ruler, and opened relations with the Catholic west, especially Venice and Genoa , to reduce the influence of the Byzantines over his country.
Tarnovo became a major economic and religious center—a " Third Rome ", unlike the already declining Constantinople. The country's military and economic might declined after the end of the Asen dynasty in , facing internal conflicts, constant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks and Mongol domination. Political instability continued to grow, and Bulgaria gradually began to lose territory. This led to a peasant rebellion led by the swineherd Ivaylo , who eventually managed to defeat the Tsar's forces and ascend the throne.
A weakened 14th-century Bulgaria faced a new threat from the south, the Ottoman Turks , who crossed into Europe in By , factional divisions between the feudal landlords and the spread of Bogomilism had caused the Second Bulgarian Empire to split into three small tsardoms— Vidin , Tarnovo and Karvuna —and several semi-independent principalities that fought among themselves, and also with Byzantines, Hungarians, Serbs, Venetians and Genoese. The Ottomans faced little resistance from these divided and weak Bulgarian states. In they captured Philippopolis Plovdiv , and in they took Sofia.
The Ottomans then turned their attentions to the Serbs, whom they routed at Kosovo Polje in In the Ottomans occupied Tarnovo after a three-month siege. In the Tsardom of Vidin was also invaded, bringing the Second Bulgarian Empire and Bulgarian independence to an end.